Artigos

Characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae belonging to CC103 clone circulating among dairy herds and pregnant women in Brazil.

Zoonoses emergentes e reemergentes e sua importância para a saúde e produção animal.

CONASEMS (Conselho Nacional de Secretarias Municipais de Saúde).

Leptospira sorovar canicola and copenhageni, Brazil.

LEPTOSPIROSE, ANÁLISE BIBLIOGRÁFICA, INQUÉRITO 2020.

Pesquisa sorológica de sorovares de leptospiras que mais frequentemente.

Revisão sobre a leptospirose canina no Brasil.

Soroprevalência e fatores de risco para a leptospirose.

Vacinas para cães. Blog Cachorro Verde.

Visão da leptospirose canina em populações assintomáticas da Região Sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.

Vaccines: An achievement of civilization, a human right, our health insurance for the future

Rino Rappuoli, Angela Santon, Alberto Mantovani

Vaccines have made a key, cost-effective contribution to the prolongation of life expectancy and quality. Here we summarize challenges facing vaccinology and immunology at the level of society, scientific innovation, and technology in a global health perspective. We argue that vaccines represent a safety belt and life insurance for humankind.

History of vaccination

Stanley Plotkin

Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

Molecular Signatures of Immunity and Immunogenicity in Infection and Vaccination

Mariëlle C. Haks, Barbara Bottazzi, Valentina Cecchinato , Corinne De Gregorio, Giuseppe Del Giudice, Stefan H. E. Kaufmann, Antonio Lanzavecchia, David J. M. Lewis, Jeroen Maertzdorf, Alberto Mantovani, Federica Sallusto, Marina Sironi, Mariagrazia Uguccioni, Tom H. M. Ottenhoff

Vaccinology aims to understand what factors drive vaccine-induced immunity and protection. For many vaccines, however, the mechanisms underlying immunity and protection remain incompletely characterized at best, and except for neutralizing antibodies induced by viral vaccines, few correlates of protection exist. Recent omics and systems biology big data platforms have yielded valuable insights in these areas, particularly for viral vaccines, but in the case of more complex vaccines against bacterial infectious diseases, understanding is fragmented and limited. To fill this gap, the EC supported ADITEC project featured a work package on “Molecular signatures of immunity and immunogenicity,” aimed to identify key molecular mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity during effector and memory stages of immune responses following vaccination. Specifically, technologies were developed to assess the human immune response to vaccination and infection at the level of the transcriptomic and proteomic response, T-cell and B-cell memory formation, cellular trafficking, and key molecular pathways of innate immunity, with emphasis on underlying mechanisms of protective immunity. This work intersected with other efforts in the ADITEC project. This review summarizes the main achievements of the work package.

Relação homem e natureza: raízes do conflito

Waldir Mantovani

Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats

Compiled by the Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) of The World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA)

Níveis de anticorpos contra o vírus da cinomose canina e o parvovírus canino em cães não vacinados e vacinados

R. Hass, J.M. Johann, C.F. Caetano, G. Fischer, G.D. Vargas, T. Vidor, S.O. Hübner

Novas diretrizes vacinais para cães – uma abordagem técnica
e ética

Sylvia Melo Rosa Angélico, César Augusto Dinóla Pereira

Uma série de mudanças nos protocolos vacinais de animais de estimação têm sido adotadas por uma crescente parcela de veterinários nos Estados Unidos, Canadá, Europa e Oceania. As diretrizes vacinais internacionais recomendam a elaboração de protocolos de imunização customizados, levando-se em consideração fatores relacionados à patogenicidade do agente etiológico, ao risco de exposição a ele e à disponibilidade de tratamento, bem como à longevidade e à eficácia da proteção conferida pelas vacinas comercialmente disponíveis. Além disso, inúmeros estudos reportam os possíveis riscos à saúde animal associados ao uso excessivo de imunógenos, em particular as reações adversas às vacinas. Nesse contexto, a presente revisão bibliográfica propõe uma análise crítica e racional dos protocolos de vacinação atualmente empregados no Brasil.

Three-year duration of immunity in dogs vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper virus vaccine

Laurie Larson, R. D. Schultz

Two studies evaluated the duration of serologic response to the recombinant, canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine (Recombitek, Merial). Serologic duration of immunity was shown to be at least 36 months. Thus, Recombitek provides protection when administered less frequently than the manufacturer’s label. After the initial vaccination protocol of two or more doses administered approximately 4 weeks apart, with the last dose given at 12 to 16 weeks of age or older, and re-vaccination at 1 year of age, Recombitek can confidently be readministered every 3 years with assurance of protection in immunocompetent dogs. This allows the vaccine to be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force and others.

Three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine

Laurie Larson, R. D. Schultz

A group of client-owned dogs and a group of dogs at a commercial kennel were evaluated for duration of antibody responses against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) after receiving a combination vaccine containing recombinant canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus (CDV) and modified-live CPV-2, CAV-2, and canine parainfluenza virus, with (C6) or without (C4) two serovars of Leptospira (Recombitek C4 or C6, Merial). Duration of antibody, which correlates with protective immunity, was found to be at least 36 months in both groups. Recombitek combination vaccines can confidently be given every 3 years with assurance of protection in immunocompetent dogs against CPV-2 and CAV-1 as well as CDV. This allows this combination vaccine, like other, similar modified- live virus combination products containing CDV, CAV-2, and CPV-2, to be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force.

Three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine

Laurie Larson, R. D. Schultz

A group of client-owned dogs and a group of dogs at a commercial kennel were evaluated for duration of antibody responses against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) after receiving a combination vaccine containing recombinant canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus (CDV) and modified-live CPV-2, CAV-2, and canine parainfluenza virus, with (C6) or without (C4) two serovars of Leptospira (Recombitek C4 or C6, Merial). Duration of antibody, which correlates with protective immunity, was found to be at least 36 months in both groups. Recombitek combination vaccines can confidently be given every 3 years with assurance of protection in immunocompetent dogs against CPV-2 and CAV-1 as well as CDV. This allows this combination vaccine, like other, similar modified- live virus combination products containing CDV, CAV-2, and CPV-2, to be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force.

Um novo olhar para Cinomose: revisão de literatura

Adeline Goes, Carlos Fortes, Caroline do Nascimento, Guilherme Rech, Thatiane Seeger, Elbio Jorgens

Comparison of two commercial rapid in-clinic serological tests for detection of antibodies against Leishmania spp. in dogs

Labrini V. Athanasiou, Theodoros A. Petanides, Manolis K. Chatzis, Dimitrios Kasabalis, Kosmas N. Apostolidis, Manolis N. Saridomichelakis

Antibodies against Leishmania spp. are detected in most dogs with clinical signs of leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum. Accurate, rapid in-clinic serological tests may permit immediate confirmation of the diagnosis and implementation of therapeutic measures. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial, rapid in-clinic serological tests for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in sera of dogs, the Snap Canine Leishmania Antibody Test kit (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine) and the ImmunoRun Antibody Detection kit (Biogal Galed Labs, Kibbutz Galed, Israel), using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) as the reference method. A total of 109 sera collected from 65 seropositive and 44 seronegative dogs were used. The sensitivities of the Snap and ImmunoRun kits were 89.23% (95% confidence interval: 79.05–95.54%) and 86.15% (95% confidence interval: 75.33–93.45%), respectively, and the specificity of both tests was 100%. A good agreement between each of the rapid in-clinic serological tests and IFAT and between the 2 rapid in-clinic serological tests was witnessed. Both rapid in-clinic serological tests showed an adequate diagnostic accuracy and can be used for the fast detection of antibodies against L. infantum in dogs.

Comparison of two commercially available serological rapid tests with the official screening test used to detect Leishmania seropositive dogs in Brazil

Filipe Dantas-Torres, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva Sales, Lidiane Gomes da Silva, Domenico Otranto, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo

Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health problem in Brazil, where seropositive dogs are usually culled as part of the control program. Currently, a rapid immunochromatographic test (DPP® Leishmaniose Visceral Canina) is used as the official screening test. However, the production of this test has not been sufficient to attend the national demand, particularly in private laboratories. In this study, we compared the level of agreement between results obtained with the official screening test with two commercial rapid tests (i.e., SNAP® Leishmania Test and AlereTM Leishmaniose Ac Test). By testing 95 serum samples of dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area, we found a substantial agreement (Kappa = 0.77; P < 0.0001) between the official rapid test and SNAP® Leishmania Test and a fair agreement (Kappa = 0.26; P < 0.0001) between the official rapid test and AlereTM Leishmaniose Ac Test. In conclusion, SNAP® Leishmania Test should be considered as an equally reliable alternative to DPP® Leishmaniose Visceral Canina. The second commercial test, AlereTM Leishmaniose Ac Test, seems less reliable and could lead to a significant underestimation of the actual number of positive dogs during serological screenings in the framework of the Brazilian visceral leishmaniasis control program. Indeed, 16 dogs that were positive at both DPP® Leishmaniose Visceral Canina and SNAP® Leishmania Test were negative at AlereTM Leishmaniose Ac Test.

Evaluation of a CPV-2 Fecal Parvovirus ELISA (SNAP Fecal Parvo Test ®) from IDEXX Laboratories

Laurie J. Larson, Mariela Quesada, Eiman Mukhtar, K. Krygowska, Ronald D. Schultz

Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates

Gabriel Grimaldi, Jr, Antonio Teva, Claudiney B. dos-Santos, Fernanda Nunes Santos, Israel de-Souza Pinto, Blima Fux, Gustavo Rocha Leite, Aloísio Falqueto

Because domestic dogs are reservoir hosts for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, one of the approaches used to reduce human disease incidence is to cull infected dogs. However, the results of controlled intervention trials based on serological screening of dogs and killing of seropositive animals are equivocal. A prophylactic vaccine to protect dogs from being infectious to the sand fly vector could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. Here, we investigated whether a currently licensed commercial subunit rA2 protein–saponin vaccine (Leish-tec®) had an additional effect to dog culling on reducing the canine infectious populations.